The United States and the End of British Colonial Rule in Africa, 1941–1968


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About the Book

At the end of World War II, Britain possessed a vast African empire encompassing nearly 2.7 million square miles, about 10 times larger than Britain itself. But by 1965, only three small African territories remained under British control, all of which would become independent before the end of 1968. This book examines the swift demise of Britain’s African empire, looking particularly at the role played by the United States in bringing the empire to an end. It reveals how the United States was anti-colonial without being actively pro-independence, concluding that the country’s policies and actions, combined with its postwar dominance, directly and indirectly contributed to the political, economic, and social transformation of Africa.

About the Author(s)

James P. Hubbard is retired and lives in Columbia, Maryland. He has written about education in colonial Nigeria.

Bibliographic Details

James P. Hubbard
Format: softcover (7 x 10)
Pages: 421
Bibliographic Info: notes, bibliography, index
Copyright Date: 2011
pISBN: 978-0-7864-5952-0
eISBN: 978-0-7864-5745-8
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Preface      1

1. The United States and Colonies, 1941–1945: Roosevelt Seizes the High Moral Ground      5

2. Churchill, Britain, and Empire, 1941–1945: Hands Off the British Empire      29

3. The Truman Administration, 1945–1952: Global Power and Colonies      45

4. Great Britain, the United States and Colonial Issues in the United Nations, 1946–1952: In the Middle of the Road      65

5. Colonial Reform in London, 1946–1952: Fresh Ideas      80

6. Colonial Reform in West Africa, 1946–1952: A Good Beginning      94

7. Colonial Reform in East and Central Africa, 1946–1952: Rural Revolt and Federation      115

8. Egypt, Britain, the United States, and the Sudan, 1946–1954: A Bargaining Chip      130

9. The Eisenhower Administration and British Africa, 1953–1960: At Arm’s Length      146

10. Colonialism in the United Nations During the Eisenhower Years, 1953–1960: Still in the Middle      169

11. Colonial Policy Under the Conservatives, 1952–1959: Foot Dragging      180

12. Anglo-American Sponsored Development: A Road Not Taken      191

13. West Africa and the Sudan, 1953–1960: Final Steps      202

14. East Africa, 1953–1959: Political Transformations      218

15. Central Africa, 1953–1959: Hopes Unfulfilled      246

16. British Colonial Policy, 1959–1960: Macleod Accelerates the Pace      255

17. Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1959–1960: Rough Waters      272

18. Kennedy, Macmillan, and Africa, 1961–1963: A New Style      286

19. West and East Africa, 1961–1963: Carrying on Regardless      302

20. Central Africa, 1961–1963: End of Federation      321

21. Johnson and British Colonial Africa, 1963–1968: No Rescue      350

Conclusions      364

Chapter Notes      373

Bibliography      397

Index      407

Book Reviews & Awards

“Hubbard’s detailed narrative provides a rich account of the ins and outs of British and American policymaking in the face of African nationalist agitation. The book serves as an excellent reference”—H-Diplo Roundtable Review; “engagingly written”—Oxford Journals Clippings Diplomatic History.