Science and Technology in World History, Volume 2

Early Christianity, the Rise of Islam and the Middle Ages

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About the Book

Science is a living, organic activity, the meaning and understanding of which have evolved incrementally over human history. This book, the second in a roughly chronological series, explores the evolution of science from the advents of Christianity and Islam through the Middle Ages, focusing especially on the historical relationship between science and religion. Specific topics include technological innovations during the Middle Ages; Islamic science; the Crusades; Gothic cathedrals; and the founding of Western universities. Close attention is given to such figures as Paul the Apostle, Hippolytus, Lactantius, Cyril of Alexandria, Hypatia, Cosmas Indicopleustes, and the Prophet Mohammed.

About the Author(s)

David Deming is a professor of Arts & Sciences at the University of Oklahoma. A geophysicist, research scientist and historian, he has written on topics ranging from the history of science to climate change and energy resources.

Bibliographic Details

David Deming
Format: softcover (7 x 10)
Pages: 237
Bibliographic Info: notes, bibliography, index
Copyright Date: 2010
pISBN: 978-0-7864-5839-4
eISBN: 978-0-7864-5642-0
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Preface      1

1. Christianity      3

Jesus Christ (c. 4 B.C.–A.D. 30)      3

Paul the Apostle (c. A.D. 0–60)      13

Growth of the Christian Church      18

Monasticism      23

Attitudes Toward Philosophy      26

Demonology      31

Attitudes Toward Women      36

Charity      41

2. The Dark Ages (c. A.D. 500–1000)      47

The Intellectual Decline of Europe      47

Failure of Ancient Science and Natural Philosophy      48

Cosmas Indicopleustes (c. A.D. 490–585)      56

Isidore of Seville (A.D. 560–636)      59

3. Islam      63

The Prophet Mohammed (A.D. 570–632)      63

Islamic Expansion      81

Islamic Science (c. A.D. 750–1200)      86

Decline of Islamic Science and Philosophy      105

4. High Middle Ages in Europe (c. A.D. 1000–1300)      112

Feudalism and Economic Stagnation      112

Medieval Warm Period      114

Economic and Technological Progress      115

Crusades      116

Cathedrals      120

Logic and Literature      123

Translations      132

Aristotle and the Church, 13th Century      135

Rise of the Universities      139

5. Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) and Scholasticism      146

Dominican Monk      146

Albertus Magnus (c. 1200–1280)      148

Reason and Revelation      148

Summa Theologica      149

Scholastic Synthesis      152

6. Roger Bacon (c. 1214–1294)      154

Magician and Scientist      154

Emergence of Empiricism in the Thirteenth Century      155

Oxford and Robert Grosseteste      157

Paris, Magnets, and Occult Forces      159

Opus Majus      163

Compendium Studii Philosophiae      167

7. Technological Innovation During the Middle Ages      169

Unwritten History      169

Agriculture      170

Power      172

The Mechanical Clock      175

Military and Economic Technology      177

Conclusion      182

Chapter Notes      185

Bibliography      215

Index      225