Legal Marijuana

Perspectives on Public Benefits, Risks and Policy Approaches


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About the Book

The legalization of marijuana has spread rapidly throughout the United States, from just a handful of states ten years ago to now more than half, as well as the nation’s capital. In Canada, it is legal to use and distribute nationally. Thousands of cities and towns are following suit. Legalization seems to be a win-win—people who use cannabis for health and recreation are served, business is brisk, and many governments welcome the much-needed boost in tax revenue. But not everyone thinks so. The rapid pace of legalization has spurred debate among citizens, cities, states and the federal government. This collection of essays explains the benefits and concerns, the policies and actions, and the future of this controversial issue.

About the Author(s)

Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III, Ph.D., is vice provost for global affairs as well as chair and Mayor George Christopher Professor of Public Administration at Golden Gate University. He founded GGU’s law enforcement and security program and is a San Francisco advocate for the safety and security of Filipino American kids and their families.

Mickey P. McGee, DPA, is professor of public administration and director of the Doctor of Business Administration Program at Golden Gate University. He co-developed GGU’s Urban Innovations Program including the course, Inclusion, Diversion, Equity, and Accessibility. He has consulted for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the International City/County Management Association.

Bibliographic Details

Edited by Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III and Mickey P. McGee

Format: softcover (7 x 10)
Pages: 283
Bibliographic Info: appendices, notes, index
Copyright Date: 2019
pISBN: 978-1-4766-7309-7
eISBN: 978-1-4766-3469-2
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vi

Preface 1


1. Legalized Pot Pushes Colorado Revenue Department into New Territory (John Sepulvado) 7

2. Local Pot Laws Conflict with National Policies Worldwide (Donald F. Kettl) 10

3. A Brief History of Cannabis Policy Legislation (Dereck Glover and Mickey P. McGee) 12

4. Marijuana Research Report Series: Excerpt (National Institute on Drug Abuse) 15

5. Smoked Marijuana Is Not Medicine (U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency) 20

6. The Legalization Lobby (U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency) 25

7. FDA and Marijuana: Questions and Answers (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 32


A. Opportunities and Benefits

8. The Possibilities of Pot (William Smith) 37

9. Seniors Increasingly Getting High, Study Shows (Carmen Heredia Rodriguez) 42

10. Studies Show Benefits, Downsides of Recreational Marijuana (Ted Yoakum) 44

11. Medical Marijuana Emerges from the Shadows (Kevin Harper) 48

12. Options and Issues Regarding Marijuana Legalization in Vermont (Beau Kilmer) 53

B. Business

13. Where Will Legal Marijuana Industry STASH Its CASH? (Gordon Oliver) 56

14. Why Legal Marijuana Businesses Are Still ­Cash-Only (Sophie Quinton) 60

15. For This Pot Guy, States Are His Biggest Customers (J.B. Wogan) 64

16. Firm Brings Cannabis to the Forefront (Douglas Levy) 70

17. Business and Citizen Thoughts on Legalized Marijuana (Samira J. Perry and Mickey P. McGee) 74

C. Health

18. As States OK Medical Marijuana Laws, Doctors Struggle with Knowledge Gap (Shefali
Luthra) 78

19. Could Legalizing Pot Diminish California’s Gains Against Smoking? (Anna Gorman) 81

20. As Marijuana Laws Relax, Doctors Say Pregnant Women Shouldn’t Partake (Sarah Varney) 84

21. Marijuana’s Lasting Effects on the Brain (Nora D. Volkow) 87

22. The Public Health Implications of the Legalization of Recreational Cannabis (Juliet Akhigbe, Vash Ebbadi, Katie Huynh, James Leckie, Maria Major, Cara Robinson, Michelle Suarly and David Wasserstein) 89

23. Marijuana Legalization in Two States: A ­Man-Made Public Health Disaster? (Paula Gordon) 95

24. Link Between Medical Marijuana and Fewer Opioid Deaths Is More Complex (Rosalie Liccardo Pacula) 99

D. Youth

25. Teaching Teens the Perils of Pot as Marketplace Grows (Anna Gorman) 101

26. Challenging Marijuana Myths (Nora D. Volkow) 104

E. Workplace

27. Drugs in the Public Workplace: The HR Challenge (Joe Jarret) 106

28. Marijuana at City Hall (William Kirchhoff and Stephen Zimney) 109

F. Veterans

29. VA Clears the Air on Talking to Patients About Marijuana Use (Michelle Andrews) 115

30. Marijuana Use and PTSD Among Veterans (Marcel O. ­Bonn-Miller and Glenna S. Rousseau) 117

G. Stoned Driving

31. Opponents of Legalized Marijuana Take Aim at Stoned Driving (Andy Metzger) 121

32. Why the Latest News on Marijuana and Car Crashes Has Some Experts Skeptical (Daniel C. Vock) 124

33. With Pot on the Ballot, States Weigh How to Police Stoned Drivers (Stephanie ­O’Neill and Ben Markus) 126

34. Legal Marijuana Means States Struggle to Address High Driving (Sarah Breitenbach) 128

H. Concerns and Challenges

35. Uncertainties After a Year of Legalized Marijuana (Deborah Sutton) 131

36. As the ­Pro-Pot Movement Gains Popularity, Reservations Remain Among Locals (Dylan Woolf Harris) 136

37. Colorado’s Pot Legalization Creates Challenges (Diane Raver) 140

38. Licensing Medical Marijuana Stirs Up Trouble for States (Rebecca Beitsch) 144

39. Legal Cultivation Challenges and California (Patrick Murphy, Henry McCann and Van Bustic) 148


A. Regulation

40. The ­Adult-Use Marijuana Act: Issues and Impacts (Mickey P. McGee) 151

41. Managing Marijuana: The Role of ­Data-Driven Regulation (Stephen Goldsmith) 156

42. Medical Marijuana: Do States Know How to Regulate It? (Dylan Scott) 158

43. Managing Medical Marijuana (William Kirchhoff) 164

44. Marijuana Management: What’s Happening Now (Michele Frisby) 171

45. Advertising Marijuana (Seth Poe and Alan R. Roper) 174

46. A Framework for Regulating Legal Marijuana (Patrick Murphy and John Carnevale) 181

B. Enforcement

47. Medical Marijuana Law Enforcement: Lessons from District Attorneys (Gary A. Craft and Mickey P. McGee) 186

48. Medical Marijuana Law Enforcement: Lessons from Police Chiefs (Gary A. Craft and
Mickey P. McGee) 190

49. A Tale of Two Memos (Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III) 193

50. Berkeley’s Medical and Recreational Cannabis Policy (Jim Hynes) 197

51. Cloud of Uncertainty Over Legalized Pot as Feds End ­Obama-Era Accommodation (Anna Gorman and Phil Galewitz) 203

C. Bans

52. Law, Legalization and the Failed War on Drugs (David Schultz) 206

53. As Towns Ban Pot, States Withhold Legalization’s Profits (Liz Farmer) 209

54. Cities in Santa Clara County Scramble to Ban Marijuana Sales (Khalida Sarwari) 211


55. The Connection Between Power and Pot (Alan R. Roper) 217

56. How to Keep Marijuana Green (Alan R. Roper) 223

57. A “Deal with the Devil”? Native American Tribes Push for Marijuana Legalization (Zoe Sullivan) 229

58. High Praise: Pot Churches Proliferate as States Ease Access to Marijuana (Barbara Feder Ostrov) 233

59. Your Grandma’s Guide to Grass (Ana B. Ibarra) 236

60. Officials Argue for Medical Marijuana (Dave Boucher) 239

Appendix A: Glossary of Legalized Marijuana Terms Alan R. Roper and Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III 243

Appendix B: City of Portland Ordinance No. 186857: Passed October 22, 2014 250

Appendix C: U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency Drug Fact Sheet 258

Appendix D: Federal Trafficking Penalties for Marijuana, Hashish and Hashish Oil, Schedule I Substances 260

Appendix E: VA and Medical Marijuana—What Veterans Need to Know 262

About the Contributors 263

Index 267

Book Reviews & Awards

“Exceptionally well organized…recommended”—Midwest Book Review

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