Colombia’s Narcotics Nightmare

How the Drug Trade Destroyed Peace


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About the Book

This history of Colombia’s illegal drug trade—and of the extreme violence it created—describes how in the late 1960s narcotics traffickers from the United States convinced Colombians who had no previous involvement in the drug trade to grow marijuana for export to America. By the early ’70s, foreign (mostly American) traffickers began requesting cocaine.
This book focuses on the decades of crime and violence the illegal drug trade brought to Colombia and how this social upset was ended in the early 2000s. Six chapters detail the Medellín and Cali cartels’ war against the Colombian government, the revolutionary guerrillas’ war against the government, the war that paramilitary groups conducted against the guerrillas, and the way in which the government finally put a stop to the cartel-financed bloodshed.
In conclusion, the author assesses Colombia’s progress and prospects since the end of the violence claimed the lives of some 300,000 between 1975 and 2008.

About the Author(s)

James D. Henderson specializes in modern Latin American and Colombian history. He taught at Coastal Carolina University until his retirement in 2014. He lives in Conway, South Carolina.

Bibliographic Details

James D. Henderson
Format: softcover (7 x 10)
Pages: 240
Bibliographic Info: glossary, notes, bibliography, index
Copyright Date: 2015
pISBN: 978-0-7864-7917-7
eISBN: 978-1-4766-1884-5
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vi

Introduction: The Left and Right of Violence and Illegal Drugs in Colombia 1

Song of Love (Between My Country and Me) by Luz Marina Posada 10

1. Colombia’s Decade of Peace, 1965–1975

Dynamism of the 1965–1975 Period 11

Colombia’s Iron Triangle of Violence 16

Rise of the Drug Culture in the United States 18

Initial U.S. and Colombian Responses to Illegal Drugs, 1965–1975 23

2. The Illegal Drug Hydra, 1970–1983

Colombia Gold 26

Cocaine Comes to Colombia 33

Drugs, Violence, Impunity 41

The Cartels’ Golden Moment, 1978–1983 47

3. The Cartels’ War Against the State, 1984–1994

The Extraditables 53

The New Violence 65

Democratic Responses to the Violence 75

Moment of Hope 81

4. The Guerrillas’ War Against the State

Introduction: Guerrillas and Drugs 89

The Guerrillas During Colombia’s Decade of Peace, 1965–1975 92

Guerrilla Advance During the Illegal Drug Boom, 1975–1993 97

The Guerrilla Offensive of 1994–2002 112

5. The Paramilitary Offensive

Introduction: Civil Defense and Impunity 121

Paramilitary Growth During the 1970s and 1980s 124

The ­Narco-Paramilitary 134

The Paramilitary Offensive of 1994–2002 139

6. Colombia Gets Tough, 2002–2013

The Uribe Phenomenon 154

Plan Colombia 165

Slogging Toward Peace 173


Victim of Globalization 185

Illegal Drugs and Colombia’s New Violence 186

Post-Conflict Colombia 187

Glossary 193

Chapter Notes 197

Bibliography 216

Index 223

Book Reviews & Awards

“Henderson takes by the horns this ‘difficult subject of study’”—Hispanic American Historical Review; “valuable”—Revista