Sports Sponsorship

Principles and Practices

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About the Book

This book focuses on how the sponsorship of sports works: the costs, the goals, evaluation and selection of the property a sponsor chooses, how to activate a sponsorship, how to create a brand association, public relations and brand image possibilities. Anything is possible in a sponsorship, it is simply what the sponsor and the property can agree to during their negotiations. There is, for example, the opportunity for product category exclusivity—no competing brand at a particular location. With the audience being harder to reach because of technology, sponsorship continues to be a viable way to obtain brand exposure and better connect a brand with a consumer. With global sponsorship spending totaling more than $51 billion, it is clear that many companies see this as an important promotional communication strategy.

Instructors considering this book for use in a course may request an examination copy here.

About the Author(s)

John A. Fortunato is a professor at New York’s Fordham University in the Gabelli School of Business, Area of Communication and Media Management.  He is the author of five books and has published more than 50 journal articles and book chapters.

Bibliographic Details

John A. Fortunato

Format: softcover (7 x 10)
Pages: 228
Bibliographic Info: 8 tables, bibliography, index
Copyright Date: 2013
pISBN: 978-0-7864-7431-8
eISBN: 978-1-4766-0290-5
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xi

Foreword by Tony Ponturo 1

Introduction 3

One. Promotional Communication and Persuasion 11

Elaboration Likelihood Model 11

Elaboration Likelihood Model and Promotional Communication 12

Branding Process 15

Achievement of Goals Leading to Persuasion 17

Brand Recall 20

Two. The Principles of Sponsorship 23

Product Placement 24

Sponsorship Defined 26

The Property Need for Revenue 27

Sponsors as Property Promoters 29

The Sponsorship Negotiation Process 30

The Role of Agencies in the Sponsorship Process 35

Three. Sponsorship Selection: Audience Variables, Cost and Exclusivity 38

Property Selection Overview 38

Property Selection: Target Audience 38

Property Selection: Income 40

Property Selection: Geographic Scope 41

Property Selection: Common Interest 44

Sponsorship Timing 45

Sponsorship Cost 46

Sponsorship Exclusivity 51

Product Category Definition 57

Four. Sponsorship Selection: Game/Event Brand Exposure Opportunities Through Media 59

Sponsored Elements Within the Broadcast 63

Stadium and Arena Naming Rights Sponsorship 65

Sponsor Role in Stadium Construction and Financing 70

College Football Bowl Game Sponsorship 72

Audience Reaction to Sponsorship 74

Five. Sponsorship Selection: Brand Association 76

Brand Congruence 78

Individual (Self) Congruence 79

Sponsor Congruence 81

Sponsor Congruence: Image 81

Sponsor Congruence: Functional 83

Geographic Congruence 86

Multiple-Sponsor Congruence 87

Consumer Behavior 88

Purchase Congruence 89

Uniform/Apparel Sponsorship 91

University Uniform and Equipment Sponsorship 94

Six. Sponsorship Activation 99

Activation Spending 99

Activation: Planning and Customization 101

Activation: Brand Association 102

Activation: Brand Theme 103

Activation: Fan Experiences 104

Activation in Practice 105

Activation In-Stadium/In-Arena 111

Non-Stadium/Arena Activation 112

Hospitality 114

Credit Card Industry 117

Sponsorship Retention and Renewal 120

Seven. Hindrances to a Successful Sponsorship 123

Advertising Clutter 125

Ambush Marketing 126

Ambush Marketing Practices 127

Ambush Marketing Remedies 129

League and Team Conflict: The Legal Battles 132

League and Team Conflict in Practice 135

Non-Rights Holder Media Conflict 139

Company Scandal 140

Fans of Rivals 141

Eight. Sponsorship of Individuals 143

Endorser Characteristics 144

Expertise 145

Individual Sponsors Activation 145

Athlete and League/Team Conflict 148

Athlete Misbehavior 150

Conflict Repair Strategies 152

Athlete Injury 154

Nine. Sponsorship and Corporate Social Responsibility 156

The Functions of Public Relations 157

Corporate Social Responsibility 158

Sponsorship Selection: A Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative 159

Corporate Social Responsibility Outcomes 160

Corporate Social Responsibility and Sports Sponsorship 161

Ten. Sponsorship Evaluation 172

Methods of Evaluation: Brand Exposure Metrics 173

Evaluation: Digital Technologies 175

Return on Investment (ROI) 176

Return on Objectives (ROO) 177

Evaluation and Planning 178

Who Should Measure? 179

Conclusion 181

References 185

Index 204

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