Keeping Schools Safe

Case Studies and Insights

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About the Book

Since 2009, at least 177 of America’s schools experienced a shooting. A parent should not have to worry when their children are at a public school in their city—whether it be an elementary school, a middle school, a high school, or a college campus. School safety and security are strengthened by prevention, mitigation, and response. The sections in this book educate school boards, school administrators, policymakers, academics, and parents on the importance of staying informed and accurately responding to school security and safety. The book highlights the school shootings in Columbine, Newton, Parkland, and many others that remind us of the responsibilities as citizens and communities to make schools a safe space for children. It is time to think about school shootings not merely as a problem of security but as a problem of security and education.

About the Author(s)

Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III, Ph.D., is vice provost for global affairs as well as chair and Mayor George Christopher Professor of Public Administration at Golden Gate University. He founded GGU’s law enforcement and security program and is a San Francisco advocate for the safety and security of Filipino American kids and their families.

Roger L. Kemp, Ph.D., ICMA-CM, has been a city manager on both the East and West coasts for more than 25 years. He is presently Distinguished Adjunct Professor of Public Administration at Golden Gate University and a Fellow of The Academy of Political Science.

Bibliographic Details

Edited by Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III and Roger L. Kemp
Format: softcover (7 x 10)
Pages: 370
Bibliographic Info: appendices, glossary, index
Copyright Date: 2023
pISBN: 978-1-4766-7675-3
eISBN: 978-1-4766-4433-2
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vii
Preface 1
Part I. Introduction
1. Colorado Shooting Eerily Recalls Columbine Massacre
Jillian Peterson and James Densley 7
2. Searching for Safety: Where Children Hide When Gunfire Is All Too Common
Cara Anthony 10
3. How Political Pessimism Helps Doom Tougher Gun Laws
Alec MacGillis 14
4. 100,000 NYC Schoolchildren Face ­Airport-Style Security Screening Every Day
Cecilia Reyes 17
Part II. Risk Mitigation
• A. Plan and Prepare •
5. Blue Ribbon Panel on School Safety Recommendation
Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office 25
6. Final Report: Missouri Governor’s School Safety Task Force
Mike Kehoe 38
7. School Climate and Emergencies
U.S. Department of Education 49
8. Systematic Approach to Improve Security
U.S. Department of Homeland Security 52
9. Basic School District/School Plan Format
Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency 59
10. Beginning the Planning Process
Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency 63
11. Preparedness
Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency 70
12. School Safety and Security
Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction 79
• B. Practice and Train •
13. Chicago’s Safe Passage Program
F. Chris Curran 85
14. Award-Winning Tips on Community Health and Safety
Rebecca DeSantis 88
15. Books, Binders, ­Bleed-Control Kits
Sandy West 91
16. Prevention and Mitigation
Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency 94
17. Schools Should Heed Calls to Do Lockdown Drills Without Traumatizing
Jaclyn Schildkraut 100
18. Do Lockdown Drills Do Any Good?
Jaclyn Schildkraut 103
• C. Response, Recovery, Review •
19. Beyond the Parkland School Shootings
Leonard Matarese 106
20. Lessons Learned from Mass Shootings
Philip Schaenman and Hollis Stambaugh 110
21. Response
Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency 115
22. Recovery
Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency 120
Part III. Interventions
• A. Threat Assessment •
23. Threat Assessments Crucial to Prevent School Shootings
Dewey Cornell 127
24. A Threat Assessment Model
U.S. Secret Service 130
25. Creating a Targeted Violence Prevention Plan
U.S. Department of Homeland Security 134
26. School Shooters Usually Show These Signs of Distress
Jillian Peterson and James Densley 138
27. Analyzing Online Posts Could Help Spot Future Mass Shooters and Terrorists
Neil Shortland and Allyssa McCabe 141
• B. Active Shooter •
28. Shots Fired! Is Your Community Ready for an Active Shooter?
Rod Gould and Jack Brown 144
29. Active Shooter: How to Respond
U.S. Department of Homeland Security 148
30. Active Shooter Situations
U.S. Department of Education 155
• C. Guns and Weapons •
31. Weapons and Schools
Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction 164
32. Mass Shootings Do Little to Change State Gun Laws
Joaquin Sapien 167
33. More States Are Allowing Guns on College Campuses
Neal H. Hutchens and Kerry B. Melear 170
34. Why Trump’s Idea to Arm Teachers May Miss the Mark
Aimee Huff and Michelle Barnhart 173
35. Arming ­Non-Teaching Staff
Ian Smith 176
36. Republicans Say No to CDC Gun Violence Research
Lois Beckett 182
37. How the Gun Control Debate Ignores Black Lives
Lois Beckett 185
• D. Gangs and Bullying •
38. Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth Violence
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control 195
39. At-Risk Youth in Schools: A Wraparound Delinquency Prevention Program
National Institute of Justice 205
40. Gangs vs. Extremists
National Institute of Justice 209
41. Chicago Public Schools Monitored Social Media for Signs of Violence, Gang Membership
Aaron Leibowitz and Sarah Karp 212
42. Bullying Module
California Department of Education 217
43. Teen Cyberbullying Content Assessed in the Context of Social Networks
National Institute of Justice 229
• E. School Resource Officers, Police and Fire Departments •
44. The Future of Police Services in Our Nation’s Cities and Schools
Roger L. Kemp and Paul J. Figueroa 234
45. School Resource Officers—Community Perspective
Center for Public Safety Management and International City/County Management Association 239
46. School Resource Officers and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
U.S. Department of Education 243
47. Video of ­6-Year-Old Girl’s Arrest Shows the Perils of Putting Police in Primary Schools
F. Chris Curran 253
48. The Role of the Fire Department in School Safety
Demond Simmons 256
• F. Mental and Behavioral Health •
49. Keeping Students Safe Is a Growth Industry Struggling to Fulfill Its Mission
John S. Carlson 260
50. Preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 263
51. Washington State Law on Behavioral Care Balances Parental Rights, Teens’ Autonomy
Michelle Andrews 271
52. Myth vs. Fact: Violence and Mental Health
Lois Beckett 274
53. What Mass Shootings Do to Those Not Shot
Arash Javanbakht 280
54. Among U.S. States, New York’s Suicide Rate Is the Lowest. How’s That?
Michelle Andrews 283
• G. Race and Discipline •
55. School Suspensions Don’t Stop Violence—They Help Students Celebrate It
Charles Bell 286
56. Rethinking School Discipline
U.S. Department of Education 289
57. Alternative Approaches Needed to End Racial Disparities in School Discipline
Jonathan F. Zaff 294
58. The Obama Administration’s “Rethink School Discipline” Guidance
Federal Commission on School Safety 297
Part IV. The Future
59. Have We Become Too Paranoid About Mass Shootings?
Jaclyn Schildkraut 309
60. Why Security Measures Won’t Stop School Shootings
Bryan Warnick, Benjamin A. Johnson and Sam Rocha 312
61. “None of the Children at the School Are Safe”
Jodi S. Cohen and Jennifer Smith Richards 315
62. What Schools Can Do to Reduce the Risk That Teachers and Other Educators Will Sexually Abuse Children
David Finkelhor 324
Appendix A: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms on School Safety and Security
Alan R. Roper and Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III 329
Appendix B: Eight Steps for Creating a Comprehensive Targeted Violence Prevention Plan
U.S. Department of Education 337
Appendix C: The Safe Schools for Safe Learning Act of 2013
State of California 339
Appendix D: Sample Firearms Safety Memorandum
California Department of Education 341
Appendix E: Internet Safety Letter 343
California Department of Education
Appendix F: Compliance Tool for a Comprehensive School Safety Plan
California Department of Education 345
About the Contributors 351
Index 355