Genres of Doubt

Science Fiction, Fantasy and the Victorian Crisis of Faith

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About the Book

 Nineteenth-century Britain gave birth to the fantasy novel and the science fiction novel—two of today’s most popular genres. During the same period, the traditional Christian beliefs that had underpinned British society for centuries faced new challenges as geological discoveries, the writings of Charles Darwin and exposure to other cultures gave rise to a Victorian “crisis of faith.”
These two shifts—one literary, one cultural—were deeply intertwined. The novel, a literary form that was developed as a vehicle for realism, when infused with unreal elements offered a space to ponder questions about the supernatural, the difference between belief and knowledge, and humanity’s place in the world. The author explores how questions of meaning, identity and faith inspired the speculative fiction of today’s novels, films, television shows and comics.

About the Author(s)

Elizabeth M. Sanders holds a Ph.D. in English literature from the University of Iowa. She works in corporate and foundation relations at the University of Missouri-St. Louis, and speaks at conferences about career transitions for Ph.D.s. She continues to let books about fantastic worlds teach her more about the world she’s in.

Bibliographic Details

Elizabeth M. Sanders
Format: softcover (6 x 9)
Pages: 188
Bibliographic Info: notes, bibliography, index
Copyright Date: 2017
pISBN: 978-1-4766-6562-7
eISBN: 978-1-4766-2921-6
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Preface 1

Introduction: The Secular and the Supernatural in Victorian Life and Fiction 3

1. The Problem with Creation: Narrating the Break with God 21

Frankenstein: The Lonely Fall 23

The Island of Dr. Moreau: The Animal and the Machine 41

2. Doubting Magic: Christian Fantasy During the Crisis 56

Phantastes: Doubt in the Hero 63

The ­Water-Babies: Doubt in the Reader 68

The Princess and the Goblin: Doubt in the Friend 75

Flatland: Doubt in the World 81

3. “Powers of their own”: Evil and Compromise in ­Late-Victorian Urban Fantasies 88

Humanity, Evil and Religion at the End of the Century 89

Intrusion and Compromise 94

The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: “A profound duplicity” 101

Dracula: “Up-to-date with a vengeance” 108

4. Supernatural Longing: The Beginnings of Modern Fantasy 123

Lewis Carroll: Growing Out of Enchantment 126

William Morris: A Sealed Enchantment 135

Epilogue: ­Twenty-First-Century Enchantments 147

Chapter Notes 159

Bibliography 168

Index 175


Book Reviews & Awards

Finalist, Mythopoeic Scholarship Award in Myth and Fantasy Studies—Mythopoeic Society