Early Women Architects of the San Francisco Bay Area

The Lives and Work of Fifty Professionals, 1890–1951


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About the Book

This book presents the lives, careers, and work of fifty largely unknown pioneers. It chronicles the triumphs and challenges these path-breaking women faced in their pursuit of entering and claiming space in the male-dominated field of architecture. Included are photographs of buildings, portraits of the architects, and some architectural drawings. Each biography offers vital data, a description of the career, a list of known buildings and work, and a bibliography. Four appendices list female architecture students at the University of California, Berkeley, women certified by California to practice architecture, members of women’s architectural societies, and female members of the American Institute of Architects.

About the Author(s)

Inge Schaefer Horton is a retired city planner with a strong background in architecture who now devotes her time to the research of women architects and preservation issues in San Francisco. She is the author of several articles and two previous books on architecture in Berlin and Paris/Brussels and is a contributing author to the 2010 book Design on the Edge, celebrating the centennial of the Architecture Department at the University of California, Berkeley.

Bibliographic Details

Inge Schaefer Horton
Format: softcover (7 x 10)
Pages: 436
Bibliographic Info: 238 photos, appendices, notes, bibliography, index
Copyright Date: 2010
pISBN: 978-0-7864-4656-8
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments      vii

Preface      1

Introduction      7

Part I. A Collective Portrait      15

One • Dreams and Inspirations      17

Two • Stepping Out of the Drawing Room      23

Three • Off to School      28

Four • With Patience and Perseverance      49

Five • Women Employees in Architectural Firms      .55

Six • An Office of Her Own      61

Seven • Rising to the Challenge      69

Eight • Related Professions      84

Nine • Supporting Each Other      87

Ten • Having It All?      91

Eleven • Happily Ever After?      102

Part II. The Design Legacy of Pioneer Women Architects      107

Twelve • Residential Work      109

Thirteen • Institutional, Commercial, and Industrial Work      128

Fourteen • The Hidden Legacy      139

Fifteen • Evaluation of Pioneer Women Practicing Architecture by Their Contemporaries      143

Part III. Individual Portraits      145

Austin, Elizabeth M.      147

Aycrigg, Helen E. Findlay      155

Bassett, Helen Rearwin      159

Benbow, Helen G.      162

Born, Esther Frances Baum      168

Boyter, Elizabeth “Bess” Mary      172

Bridgman, Lilian “Lillie” Belle      175

Brown, Phoebe Hearst      183

Castelhun, Ella      189

Chadeayne, Olive Kingsley      193

Clever, Louise Harriet Russell      198

Coblentz, Dorothy Wormser      201

Deakin, Edna Isabel      205

Diment, Shirley Constance      210

Dodge, Ola Mae Putnam      211

Ehrenfels, Camille D’Evelyn

Johnston      212

Eller, Armena Louise Morse      213

Emmons, Audrey Jean Durland

Ksanda      215

Fowler, Matilda Gertrude Newsom      222

French, Helen Louise Douglass      223

Gauen, Eileen Claudia Watkins      231

Hall (Coggins), Leola      232

Hufbauer, Arabelle McKee      239

Jackson, Minnie May      242

Jewett, Grace      246

Jory, Grace Y. Weeks      252

Kartwold, Lois Beryl Goetz      257

Kavin, Eda      261

Knapp, Charlotte “Kid” Hastings      264

Kosmak, Evelyn Meta Hall Gilcrest      265

Langhorst, Lois Wilson Worley      268

Lindheim, Roslyn Ittelson      281

Luis, Rosanna “Rose” Enos      286

McAfee, Lucy Page Brown      290

McCain, Ida F.      291

Mesic, Julian C.      301

Meyers, Mildred Sophie      306

Morgan, Julia      314

Morin (Van Blarcom), Grace

Evelyn      322

Morrow, Gertrude Elizabeth

Comfort      324

Nevins, Kate “Kitty” Lockwood

French Squire      337

Northman, Edith Mortensen      344

Parug, Martha Jane Moorehead      348

Reiss (Friedman), Hilde      353

Sanford, Florence “Sanchia”

Thurston Hincks      356

Stan, Sara Ellen “Sally” Waldner

Bould      359

Steinmesch, Henrietta May      363

Sutherland, Helen Earle      366

Williams, Emily Eolian      368

Witkin (Tarris), Elizabeth “Betty”

Ord Hillier      379

Appendix 1. Women Students in the Architecture Department/School at the University of California, Berkeley      385

Appendix 2. Architectural Licenses Issued to Women Architects by the State of California, 1901–1961      392

Appendix 3. Members of Alpha Alpha Gamma or the Association of Women in Architecture in California      395

Appendix 4. California Women Architects Admitted to the American Institute of Architects      399

Chapter Notes      401

Bibliography      415

Index      421