Cities and Homelessness

Essays and Case Studies on Practices, Innovations and Challenges

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About the Book

Homelessness in America’s cities remains a growing problem. The homeless today face the same challenges as in years past: poverty, tenuous or no ties to family and friends, physical and mental health issues, and substance abuse. Compared to the 1950s to 1970s, more homeless are now sleeping on city streets versus in shelters or single room hotels. Homelessness rates are affected by economic trends, lack of equitable and inclusive healthcare and housing, decline in public assistance programs, and natural and man-made disasters. This collection of essays covers case studies, innovations, practices and policies of municipalities coping with homelessness in the 21st century.

About the Author(s)

Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III, Ph.D., is Mayor George Christopher Professor of Public Administration at Golden Gate University. He advocated for housing and homelessness concerns as San Francisco Immigrant Rights Commissioner and as the long-time President and CEO of the Pilipino Senior Resource Center in San Francisco, California.

Mickey P. McGee, DPA, is associate professor of public administration and director of the Doctor of Business Administration Program at Golden Gate University. He co-developed GGU’s Urban Innovations Program including the course, Inclusion, Diversion, Equity, and Accessibility. He has consulted for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the International City/County Management Association.

Bibliographic Details

Edited by Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III and Mickey P. McGee
Format: softcover (7 x 10)
Pages: 313
Bibliographic Info: appendix, glossary, notes, index
Copyright Date: 2021
pISBN: 978-1-4766-7310-3
eISBN: 978-1-4766-4055-6
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vi
Preface 1

Part I. Introduction
1. A Potential Turning Point in How Cities Treat the Homeless
Mattie Quinn 13
2. Why Turning Homelessness into a Crime Is Cruel and Costly
Joseph W. Mead and Sara Rankin 15
3. How Local Governments Can Build an Effective Homelessness System
Cynthia Nagendra 17
4. Busting Three Common Myths About Homelessness
Paul Toro 19
5. Why There Are So Many Unsheltered Homeless People on the West Coast
Margot Kushel 22
6. How the Homeless Create Homes
Susan Fraiman 25

Part II. Cities ­vis-à-vis the States and the Feds
A. Cities
7. Modern Approaches to Homelessness
Amanda L. McGimpsey 31
8. Permanent Supportive Housing for Homeless in Sacramento, California
James P. Nicholls III and Rachel D. McGuffin 33
9. Exploring Homeless Work Programs in Santa Rosa, California
Nicole Trupiano and Willie L. Britt 39
10. Trump’s Attack on the Homeless and Learning from Berkeley’s Practices
Jim Hynes 44
11. Community Partnership for the Homeless in Sutter County, California
Sukhdeep Purewal 49
12. Strengthening Homelessness ­Public-Private Partnerships in Washington State
Jason Yergler 53
13. Cities Have a New Target for Ending Homelessness: Landlords
J.B. Wogan 57
14. No Questions Asked
David Kidd 59
15. Five Questions for Mayor Richard J. Berry
Beth Velasquez 64
16. Empty Space
Michael Silliman 68
17. Not Just a Place to Live: From Homelessness to Citizenship
Michael Rowe and Charles Barber 70
18. Care Not Cash Program for the Homeless in San Francisco, California
DaVina Flemings and Rachel D. McGuffin 73
19. Tackling Homelessness in San Francisco
San Francisco Department of Homelessness and Supportive Housing 78
B. States
20. California Housing Crisis
Damon Conklin 83
21. California’s Housing Future: Challenges and Opportunities
California Department of Housing and Community Development 90
22. California’s Housing First Policy
California Department of Housing and Community Development 94
23. Rhode Island First State to Pass Homeless Bill of Rights
Darby Penney 98
C. Federal
24. HUD Reports Homelessness Unchanged in U.S. in 2018
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 102
25. Ending Chronic Homelessness through Employment and Housing Projects
U.S. Department of Labor 107
26. Home, Together: The Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness
U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness 110
27. The White House Housing Development Toolkit: Executive Summary
The White House 117

Part III. Services, Innovations and Challenges
A. Affordability and Inclusion
28. Key Findings on Housing Affordability
International City/County Management Association 121
29. Affordable Housing Development
Town of Bedford, Massachusetts 123
30. Perceptions of and Barriers to Affordable Housing in Virginia
The Center for Public Policy at VCU’s Wilder School 127
31. Snapshot: The Current State of Housing Affordability in California
California Department of Housing and Community Development 129
32. Mapping as Citizen Engagement in the Fight for Affordable Housing
Michael Silliman 131
33. Inclusionary Housing: A Policy Whose Time Has Come
Deborah Bailey 133
B. Health
34. Sacramento County Reducing the Number of Mentally Ill Homeless
Samantha Carr and Alan R. Roper 135
35. How Funding to House the Mentally Ill and the Homeless Is a Financial Gain, Not Drain
Carol Caton 140
36. California Hospitals See Massive Surge in Homeless Patients
Phillip Reese 143
37. Finding Homeless Patients a Place to Heal
Ana B. Ibarra 145
38. The Homeless Are Dying in Record Numbers on the Streets of L.A.
Anna Gorman and Harriet Blair Rowan 148
39. “Medieval” Diseases Flare as Unsanitary Living Conditions Proliferate
Anna Gorman 151
C. Substance Abuse
40. Addicted to Homelessness
Johanna L. Wong and Willie L. Britt 154
41. Homelessness Programs and Resources
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 159
D. Veterans
42. Ending Veteran Homelessness
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs 164
43. VA National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs 171
44. Veteran Homelessness in Monterey County
William Bare and Mickey P. McGee 174
45. Monterey Programs Focused on Supporting Homeless Veterans and Their Families
Kurt Schake and Mickey P. McGee 178
46. An Assessment of Homeless Veteran Programs in Sacramento County
Benedict Serafica and Mickey P. McGee 181
47. Homeless Vets with Families: An Untold Part of Veterans’ Struggles
Roya ­Ijadi-Maghsoodi 185
48. At Some Veterans Homes, ­Aid-in-Dying Is Not an Option
JoNel Aleccia 188
49. “They Deserve It”: In Foster Homes, Veterans Are Cared for Like Family
Patricia Kime 191
50. Tiny Home Villages for Homeless Veterans
Rachel D. McGuffin 195
E. Seniors
51. How the Homeless Population Is Changing: It’s Older and Sicker
Margot Kushel 200
52. Housing Policy Solutions to Support Aging with Options
Shannon Guzman, Janet Viveiros and Emily Salomon 204
53. The Need for Safe and Healthy Homes in Order to Age in Place
Rachel L. Fontenot and Willie L. Britt 212
54. Accessibility Solutions for Colton Hall
Claire Moeller Rygg and Willie L. Britt 218
55. Engaging Nonprofit Sector Institutions for Housing Seniors
Joshua Odetunde 223
56. Township Taps Former Mayor for ­Age-Friendly Initiative
International City/County Management Association 226
57. Advancing Independence, Integration and Inclusion Throughout Life
Administration for Community Living 229
F. Women and Domestic Violence
58. Safe Parking Program for Homeless Women in Pacific Grove, California
Deidre L. McLay and Mickey P. McGee 232
59. Veteran, Minority, Woman and Homeless
Ginger Miller 238
60. Homeless Women Veterans
Alexandra Logsdon and Kayla M. Williams 242
61. Finding Shelter: Addressing Housing Challenges for Survivors of Domestic Violence
Rebecca DeSantis 247
G. Youth
62. Helping Homeless Youth
Jon Ruiz 250
63. Navigating Student Housing Challenges
Ryan Jensen and Katelyn Hansen 254
64. The Hidden Homelessness Among America’s High School Students
Stacey Havlik 258

Part IV. The Future
65. Shelter Design Can Help People Recover from Homelessness
Jill Pable 262
66. Improving Resident Services: Using Blockchain Technology to Benefit the Community
Rebecca DeSantis 265
67. Libraries on the Front Lines of the Homelessness Crisis in the United States
Richard Gunderman and David C. Stevens 267
68. Homeless and the Courts
Ruth Astle Samas 270
69. A Case for Transition Shelters
Gabby V. Moraleda 274

Appendices
A. Glossary of Homelessness
Alan R. Roper 281
B. Right 2 Survive FAQ
Denver Homeless Out Loud 289
About the Contributors 295
Index 299