African American Hospitals in North Carolina

39 Institutional Histories, 1880–1967


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About the Book

 Untold thousands of black North Carolinians suffered or died during the Jim Crow era because they were denied admittance to white-only hospitals. With little money, scant opportunities for professional education and few white allies, African American physicians, nurses and other community leaders created their own hospitals, schools of nursing and public health outreach efforts.
The author chronicles the important but largely unknown histories of more than 35 hospitals, the Leonard Medical School and 11 hospital-based schools of nursing established in North Carolina, and recounts the decades-long struggle for equal access to care and equal opportunities for African American health care professionals.

About the Author(s)

Phoebe Ann Pollitt has practiced nursing in Appalachia for over 30 years. She is an associate professor of nursing at Appalachian State University in Boone, North Carolina. Her professional research interests are nursing history and health disparities.

Bibliographic Details

Phoebe Ann Pollitt
Format: softcover (6 x 9)
Pages: 212
Bibliographic Info: 20 photos, appendices, bibliography, index
Copyright Date: 2017
pISBN: 978-1-4766-6724-9
eISBN: 978-1-4766-3084-7
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vii

Part I: Historical Overview of Segregated Hospital Care in North Carolina 1

A Brief Review of the Professional Literature  3

A Brief History of Hospitals in North Carolina Through 1900  6

The Establishment of Early General Hospitals, 1876–1900  10

The Founding of African American Hospitals  10

Military and Veteran’s Administration (VA) Hospitals  17

Nursing Education  18

Legal Segregation, Social Conditions and Medical Racism  20

20th-Century Statistics Documenting Health Disparities  23

Disparities in Hospital Beds by Race in the Mid–20th Century  24

The Duke Endowment  25

The Rosenwald Fund  26

The North Carolina Medical Care Commission  27

The Hospital Survey and Construction Act/Hill-Burton Act  29

Lawsuits to End Hospital Segregation  30

Conclusion  35

Part II: The Health Care Facilities 37

Raleigh, Wake County  37

Charlotte, Mecklenburg County  56

Southern Pines, Moore County  65

Durham, Durham County  70

Winston-Salem, Forsyth County  76

Wilson, Wilson County   86

Asheville, Buncombe County  92

Henderson, Vance County  101

Monroe, Union County  107

Greensboro, Guilford County  110

Oxford, Granville County  117

Smithfield, Johnston County  121

Gastonia, Gaston County  125

Wilmington, New Hanover County  128

Mount Olive, Wayne County  135

Greenville, Pitt County  136

Statesville, Iredell County  138

Laurinburg, Scotland County  140

New Bern, Craven County  142

Tarboro, Edgecombe County  147

Fayetteville, Cumberland County  150

Conclusion  154

Appendix I: Publicly Supported Specialty Hospitals for African Americans in North Carolina 159

Goldsboro, Wayne County  160

Sanatorium, Hoke County  164

Appendix II: Timeline of Significant Events Related to African American Hospitals in North Carolina, 1865–1965 169

Appendix III: 42 Public and Private African American Hospitals in North Carolina, 1880–1967 172

References 175

Index 195

Book Reviews & Awards

Winner, Historical Book Award—North Carolina Society of Historians