Rulers and Realms in Medieval Iberia, 711–1492

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About the Book

The Muslim conquest of Iberia in 711 began nearly eight centuries of struggle for control of the peninsula. The invaders quickly achieved military supremacy, but political dominance was less complete. Within a few years, a small band of Christian rebels defied Muslim authority, establishing their own ruling class in the northern mountains of Asturias.
The opposing forces competed for control until the Catholic Monarchs Fernando and Isabel established absolute rule in 1492.
Drawing on the latest scholarship, this comprehensive study traces the succession of Iberian sovereigns during a complicated period in early European history.

About the Author(s)

Timothy M. Flood lives in Bellaire, Michigan.

Bibliographic Details

Timothy M. Flood
Format: softcover (7 x 10)
Pages: 245
Bibliographic Info: maps, appendices, bibliography, index
Copyright Date: 2019
pISBN: 978-1-4766-7471-1
eISBN: 978-1-4766-3372-5
Imprint: McFarland

Table of Contents

Preface 1
1. On the Eve of Conquest: Before 711
The Visigoths in Iberia 3
The Arab Conquest of North Africa 10
Count Julian and Musa ibn Nusayr 11
2. The Muslim Invasion and the Period of Governors: 711–756
The Muslim Invasion of Iberia 13
The Arrival of Musa ibn Nusayr: 712–714 14
The Campaigns of Abd ­al-Aziz: 714–716 15
The Administration of ­al-Hurr: 716–718 16
Pelagius (Pelayo) and the Beginning of Christian Resistance 16
A Rapid Succession of Governors and Muslim Expansion North of
the Pyrenees 17
Berber Uprising and Civil War 20
Expansion of Asturias During the Reign of Alfonso I (739–757) 21
3. Umayyad Emirs and the Emergence of the Christian North: 756–912
The Rise of Abd ­al-Rahman ibn Marwan 23
The Christian North During the Time of Abd ­al-Rahman I 25
The Asturian Kingdom and the Reigns of Hisham I (788–796)
and ­al-Hakam I (796–822) 26
Carolingian Influence in the Pyrenees After 778 27
Carolingian Control Rebuffed in the Western Pyrenees 28
The Banu Qasi and Pamplona Versus Córdoba 29
Ramiro I (842–850) of Asturias 29
Mid–Ninth Century Changes in Leadership 30
Internal Unrest in ­al-Andalus Under Muhammad I (852–886) 32
The Short Unfortunate Reign of ­al-Mundhir (886–888) 33
The Reign of Abd Allah (888–912) 34
Emerging Independence in the Eastern Pyrenean Counties 35
Fortún Garcés (880?–905), the Last of His Dynasty in Navarre 36
4. The Age of Abd ­al-Rahman III: 912–961
Abd ­al-Rahman III Restores the Authority of Córdoba 38
The Sons of Alfonso III: 910–925 39
The Struggle for La Rioja 40
The Christian North in a State of Flux: 925–931 42
The Surging Influence of Castile 44
The Emir Abd ­al-Rahman III (912–961) Becomes Caliph 45
The Resumption of Conflicts During the Reign of Ramiro II (931–951) 47
Ordoño III (951–956), Sancho I (956…966), and Ordoño IV (958–959) 49
5. From Dominance to Decadence in ­al-Andalus: 961–1031
The Kingdoms of León and Navarre in Contest with ­al-Hakam II (961–976) 51
The Reign of Hisham II (976…1013) and the Usurpation of ­al-Mansur 53
The Christian North Oppressed by the Dictatorship of ­al-Mansur 56
Abd ­al-Malik ­al-Muzaffar (1002–1008) Maintains Muslim Dominance
Over the North 60
The Short Dictatorship of Sanchuelo (1008–1009) 61
Sancho García Aligns with Caliph Sulayman Against Caliph Muhammad II: 1009 63
From Ali ibn Hammud (1016–1018) to Hisham III (1027–1031) 66
The Christian North Benefits from the Civil War in ­al-Andalus 69
6. The Vacillation of Power Between Christian and Muslim Realms: 1035–1109
The Disintegration of the Caliphate into Taifa States 73
The Four Sons of Sancho Garcés III—García, Ramiro, Gonzalo, and
Fernando: 1035–1065 74
The Sons of Fernando I—Sancho, Alfonso, and García: 1065–1073 78
The Early Success of Alfonso VI: 1073–1085 80
Changes in Leadership in the Eastern Counties: 1035–1096 82
The Rise of the Almoravids 84
The Hegemony of Alfonso VI Is Challenged: 1086–1109 87
7. Christian Civil War and Waning Almoravid Power: 1109–1157
The Failed Marriage of Urraca and Alfonso I of Aragon and Civil War:
1109–1117 92
León-Castile During the Final Years of Urraca’s Reign: 1117–1126 95
The Eastern Counties Under Ramon Berenguer III (1097–1131) 96
The Emergence of Portugal 98
Alfonso I of Aragon, the Battler, During the Truce with León-Castile:
1118–1126 99
Young Alfonso VII and the Elder Battler in Contest: 1126–1134 100
The Reign of Ramiro II and the Union of Aragon and Catalonia: 1134–1137 101
The ­Re-Alignment and Stabilization of Four Christian Realms: 1137–1143 103
The Rise of the Almohads 104
The Christian North Confronts a New Power in ­al-Andalus: 1143–1157 106
8. The Division of León-Castile and the Decline of the Almohads: 1157–1214
The Division of León-Castile and the Regency of Alfonso VIII: 1157–1169 109
Almohad Campaigns During the Early Reign of Alfonso VIII: 1169–1188 112
The Almohads Successfully Contest Christian Aggression: 1189–1195 115
A Defeated Alfonso VIII Triumphs at Las Navas de Tolosa: 1196–1212 118
The Death of Three Leaders and the End of an Era: 1213–1214 121
9. The Age of the Great Christian Conquests and the Era of Alfonso X: 1214–1284
The Unfortunate Reign of Enrique I and the Ascendance of Fernando III: 1214–1224 123
The Early Years of Jaume I of ­Aragon-Barcelona: 1213–1228 124
The Reign of Afonso II of Portugal: 1211–1223 125
The Almohad Empire in Disorder and the Renewal of Christian Offensives:
1224–1230 126
Relentless Strikes from a Reunited León-Castile: 1231–1235 130
Jaume I of Aragon Advances on Valencia: 1232–1238 131
Córdoba and Its Environs Fall to the Crown of Castile: 1235–1241 132
The Fall of Murcia, Jaén and the Vassalage of Granada: 1243–1246 134
The Deposition of Sancho II and Portugal’s Advance on the Algarve:
1245–1249 136
The Conquest of Seville and the Last Days of Fernando III: 1246–1252 137
The Early Reign of Alfonso X: 1252–1275 139
The Final Years of Alfonso X: 1275–1284 143
10. A Rebellious Nobility During War, Plague and Famine: 1284–1369
The Reign of Sancho IV (1284–1295) 146
The Reigns of Pere III (1276–1285), Alfonso III (1285–1291),
and Jaume II (1291–1327) of Aragon 150
The Reign of Fernando IV (1295–1312) 152
The Minority of Alfonso XI: 1312–1325 155
Leadership Changes in Portugal, Navarre, Aragon, and Granada in
the 1320’s 156
The Majority of Alfonso XI: 1325–1350 159
The Reign of Pedro I, el Cruel (1350–1369) 162
11. The Age of the Trastámaras: 1369–1479
The Reign of the First Trastámara, Enrique II (1369–1379) 167
Juan I (1379–1390) of Castile and the Failed Annexation of Portugal 170
The Reign of Enrique III (1390–1406) of Castile 172
The End of the Male Line in Aragon: 1387–1410 174
The Minority of Juan II of Castile and the Rise of Fernando de
Antequera: 1406–1419 176
The Majority of Juan II of Castile: 1419–1454 179
The Reign of Enrique IV (1454–1474) of Castile 183
Civil War in Navarre and Aragon During the Reign of Joan II:
1441–1472 186
Portugal Under Duarte (1433–1438) and Afonso V (1438…1481) 188
Isabel and Fernando Struggle for Unity and Pacification: 1474–1479 190
12. The Catholic Monarchs and the Conquest of Granada: 1480–1492
A New Order in Iberia and an Escalation of War with Granada:
1480–1486 193
The Fall of Málaga, Eastern Andalucia, and Granada: 1487–1492 197
Appendix I: Lists
Visigothic Rulers 201
Umayyad Governors, Emirs, Caliphs 632–1031 201
Almoravid and Almohad Leaders 202
The Nasrids of Granada 203
Appendix II: Maps
Map 1: Roman Provinces 204
Map 2: Visigothic Settlement Between Bordeaux and Toulouse 205
Map 3: Visigothic Conquests Under Leovigild, Sisebut and Suintila 206
Map 4: The Muslim Conquest of North Africa 206
Map 5: Muslim Invasion Routes in Iberia: 711–714 207
Map 6: Iberia Circa 930 208
Map 7: The Early County of Castile 209
Map 8: Locations in La Rioja 210
Map 9: Christian Advances by 1076, 1086, 1157, 1230, and 1252 210
Appendix III: Genealogical Charts
Chart 1: The Kings of Asturias: 718–910 211
Chart 2: The Counts of Aragon: 809–922 211
Chart 3: The Kings of Pamplona: 824–905 212
Chart 4: The Counts of Ribagorça-Pallars 212
Chart 5: The Counts of the Eastern Pyrenees: 812–1038 213
Chart 6: The Banu Qasi 214
Chart 7: The Kings of Navarre: 905–1076 214
Chart 8: The Kings of León: 866–1037 215
Chart 9: The Counts of Castile: 931–1037 215
Chart 10: The Kings of León-Castile: 1037–1252 216
Chart 11: The Kings of Aragon: 1035–1162 216
Chart 12: The Counts of the Eastern Pyrenees: 1035–1162 217
Chart 13: The Kings of Navarre Restored: 1134–1305 218
Chart 14: The ­Count-Kings of ­Aragon-Barcelona: 1131–1387 219
Chart 15: The Kings of Portugal: 1139–1367 220
Chart 16: The Kings of León-Castile: 1252–1369 221
Chart 17: The Kings of León-Castile: 1350–1504 221
Chart 18: The French Rulers of Navarre: 1305–1518 222
Chart 19: The Kings of Portugal: 1357–1495 223
Chart 20: The ­Count-Kings of ­Aragon-Barcelona: 1387–1516 223
Works Consulted 225
Index 229